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Chapter Two - Quimby - The Pioneer
PHINEAS PARKHURST QUIMBY
was a pioneer in the truest sense of the word. He did not carry on his
investigations in the mental world as the representative of any sect or
school. He was not aware that treasures lay before him in the promised
land which he was about to enter. Few men have owed so little to the age
in which they lived. His ancestors were not in any way remarkable. His
early life gave no indication of the public work to which his productive
years were to be devoted. He is not to be accounted for by reference to
his education in the schools or by reference to the books which he read.
Consequently, there is no reason for inquiring into his life, ancestry,
and environment, as we ordinarily study the life of a man who has been
of service to the world. At the outset he was simply an explorer in a little
known region, that is, a region little known in his day. He was like the
hardy pioneer who makes his way through a primitive forest unaware of his
destination, unacquainted with the difficulties along the way, and not
burdened by the opinions of predecessors whose advice might have been misleading.
When new lines of inquiry are to be developed for the good of mankind,
God usually summons a man from the common walks of life, one who Is sufficiently
open and responsive to follow where the wisdom within him leads.
There is a great advantage
in leadership of this sort. For the pioneer becomes acquainted with all
the obstacles and grows strong by overcoming them. Face to face with difficult
situations, he must find a way to meet them. He is led to the first-hand
sources of reality. He proves the principle which becomes to him
a great truth because of his own immediate needs, and so he is able to
appeal to tangible results by way of verification of his teachings. But
those who merely follow, and that means the majority of mankind in every
land and in all time, believe on authority and gradually lose touch with
reality. Thus new pioneers, sages, or prophets are needed every now and
then through the ages, to lead the way back to the original sources of
life and truth. The moral would be, if we could read it, that we should
all adopt the pioneer's spirit and explore for ourselves, learning the
great lesson taught by those who made their own way in new fields.
The spiritual pioneer in
whose career we are at present interested lived a very simple early life.
Born in a small New England town, he spent his entire life in New England,
and his work was little known outside of Maine until after his death. He
was born in Lebanon, New Hampshire, February 16, 1802. From there
the family moved to Belfast, Maine, when he was about two years old. His
death occurred in the latter place. January I6, 1866, at the close of
twenty-five years in the practice of spiritual healing.
His father was a blacksmith,
and his life and education were such as one might enjoy in the humblest
of homes in a country town in New England. Mr. Quimby attended school as
a boy for a brief period only, and he acquired knowledge of the elementary
branches with such training as the district schools of the day afforded.
The meagerness of his education is accounted for by the fact that there
were few resources at hand, and his father was financially unable to give
him other opportunities. If we conclude that he was in any degree an educated
man, it will be because we deem education in the school of experience or
in the inner life superior to that of the schools.
Mr. Quimby had an inquiring,
inventive type of mind, and during his middle life he produced several
inventions on which he obtained letters patent. He took great interest
in scientific subjects but not in a way that led him to become a reader
of scientific works. Nor was he ever a reader of books in general. His
manuscripts contain remarkably few quotations or references, except that
in his later years he frequently introduced passages from the New Testament
in order to put his own interpretation upon them. He refers to but one
philosopher by name, and he appears never to have heard of the names of
the idealists, such as Berkeley and Emerson, whose philosophy might
have aided him had he been acquainted with their works.
He felt no antagonism to
the Church in his early years, but the churches seem to have had no direct
influence upon him, and he did not take up the study of the New Testament
until his investigations led him to a point where he believed he had a
clue to its inner meaning. Although the title "doctor" has been applied
to him, he was without medical or other therapeutic trainIng. In fact,
he stood in avowed antagonism to the "old school" in the medical world.
He was not a spiritist, despite the fact that the rise of spiritism in
the United States was contemporaneous with his work, and despite the resemblance
between some of his views and the teachings of spiritualists.
The reason for his lack of
interest in books is found in the fact that he regarded most books as full
of unproved assertions, whereas he was interested to test all matters for
himself. He was fond of referring to most statements passing current in
the world as knowledge in a somewhat skeptical way, since this boasted
knowledge seemed to him mere "opinion," in contrast with truth that could
be established on a basis of verifiable evidence and sound reasoning. He
did not raise objections as did people trained in the schools, through
mere love of argument, but because by implication he already possessed
intuitively those principles which were to guide him in his investigations.
His awakening came, not through intellectual development in the usual sense
of the word, but through the demands of practical experience.
At the time Mr. Quimby began
his investigations in the mental world he was described by a newspaper
writer as "in size rather smaller than the medium of man, with a well-proportioned
and well-balanced head, and with the power of concentration surpassing
anything we have ever witnessed. His eyes are black and very piercing,
with rather a pleasant expression; and he possesses the power of looking
at one object, without even winking, for a great length of time." His son,
George A. Quimby, in the New England Magazine, March, 1988, adds
to this description the fact that Mr. Quimby weighed about
one hundred and twenty-five pounds; that he was quick-motioned and nervous,
with a high, broad forehead, a rather prominent nose, and mouth indicating
strength and firmness of will, "persistent in what he undertook, and not
Speaking of Quimby's discoveries,
Mr. Julius A. Dresser says, "If you think this seems to show that Quimby
was a remarkable man, let me tell you that he was one of the most unassuming
of men that ever lived; for no one could well be more so, or make less
account of his achievements. Humility was a marked feature of his character
(I knew him intimately). To this was united a benevolent and an unselfish
nature, and a love of truth, with a remarkably keen perception. But the
distinguishing feature of his mind was that he could not entertain an opinion,
because it was not knowledge. His faculties were so practical and perceptive
that the wisdom of mankind, which is largely made up of opinions, was of
little value to him. Hence the charge that he was not an educated man is
literally true. True knowledge to him was positive proof, as in a problem
in mathematics. Therefore, he discarded books and sought phenomena, where
his perceptive faculties made him master of the situation.*
*The True History of
Another writer, speaking
of the impression produced upon Mr.
Quimby's patients, says, "He seemed to know at once the attitude
of mind of those who applied to him for help, and adapted
himself to them accordingly.
His years of study of the human mind, of sickness in all its forms, and of the prevailing religious beliefs, gave
him the ability to see through the opinions, doubts, and fears of those
who sought his aid, and put him in instant sympathy with their mental attitude.
He seemed to know that I had come to him feeling that he was a last resort,
and with but little faith in him or his mode of treatment. But, instead
of telling me that I was not sick, he sat beside me, and explained to me
what my sickness was, how I got into the condition, and the way I could
be taken out of it through the right understanding. He seemed to see through
the situation from the beginning, and explained the cause and effect so
clearly that I could see a little of what he meant. . . .
"The most vivid remembrance
I have . . . is his appearance as he came out of his private office ready
for the next patient. That indescribable sense of conviction, of clear-sightedness,
of energetic action---that something that made one feel that it would be
useless to attempt to cover up or hide anything from him---made an impression
never to be forgotten. Even now in recalling
it . . . I can feel the thrill of new life which came with his presence
and his look. There was something about him that gave one a sense of perfect
confidence and ease in his presence---a feeling that immediately banished
all doubts and prejudices, and put one in sympathy with that quiet strength
or power by which he wrought his cures." *
*A. G. Dresser, The
Philosophy of P. P. Quimby, p. 45.
The attitude of mind which
Mr. Quimby was in when he began to
investigate is clearly indicated by the following from an article written
in 1863 in which he describes what he calls his "conversion from disease
to health, and the subsequent changes from belief in the medical faculty
to entire disbelief in it," and to the knowledge of the truth on which
he based his theory of spiritual healing.
"Can a theory be found,"
Mr. Quimby asks, "can a theory be found, capable of practice, which
can separate truth from error? I undertake to say there is a method of
reasoning which, being understood, can separate one from the other. Men
never dispute about a fact that can be demonstrated by scientific reasoning.
Controversies arise from some idea that has been turned into a false direction,
leading to a false position. The basis of my reasoning is this point: that
whatever is true to a person, if he cannot prove it is not necessarily
true to another. Therefore, because a person says a thing is no reason
that he says true. The greatest evil that follows taking an opinion for
a truth is disease. Let medical and religious opinions, which produce so
vast an amount of misery, be tested by the rule I have laid down, and it
will be seen how much they are founded in truth. For twenty years I have
been investigating them, and I have failed to find one single principle
of truth in either. This is not from any prejudice against the medical
faculty; for, when I began to investigate the mind, I was entirely on that
side. I was prejudiced in favor of the medical faculty; for I never employed
any one outside of the regular faculty, nor took the least particle of
"Some thirty years ago I
was very sick, and was considered fast wasting away with consumption. At
that time I became so low that it was with difficulty I could walk about.
I was all the while under the allopathic practice, and I had taken so much
calomel that my system was said to be poisoned with it; and I had lost
many of my teeth from the effect. My symptoms were those of any consumptive;
and I had been told that my liver was affected and my kidneys diseased,
and that my lungs were nearly consumed. I believed all this, from the fact
that I had all the symptoms, and could
not resist the opinions of the physician while having the [supposed] proof
with me. In this state I was compelled to abandon my business; and, losing
all hope, I gave up to die---not that I thought the medical faculty had
no wisdom, but that my case was one that could not be cured.
"Having an acquaintance who
cured himself by riding horseback, I thought I would try riding in a carriage,
as I was too weak to ride horse-back. My horse was contrary; and, once,
when about two miles from home, he stopped at the foot of a long hill,
and would not start except as I went by his side. So I was obliged
to run nearly the whole distance. Having reached the top of the hill I
got into the carriage; and, as I was very much exhausted, I concluded to
sit there the balance of the day, if the horse did not start. Like
all sickly and nervous people, I could not remain easy in that place;
and seeing a man plowing, I waited till he had plowed around a three acre
lot, and got within sound of my voice, when I asked him to start my horse.
He did so, and at the time I was so weak I could scarcely lift my whip.
But excitement took possession of my senses, and I drove the horse, as
fast as he could go, up hill and down, till I reached home; and,
when I got into the stable, I felt as strong as ever I did."
This experience was of course
only the beginning. It led Mr. Quimby to doubt the diagnosis in his case.
It showed him what could be accomplished through a vigorous arousing out
of a state of bondage and mere acceptance. He was not cured, but precisely
what his malady was and how it would be overcome he did not know. It was
his investigation of the phenomena of hypnotism. then called mesmerism,
which gave him the direct clue.
The subject of mesmerism
was introduced into the United States in 1836 by Charles Poyen, a Frenchman,
and was taken up in New England by a Dr. Collyer, who gave a lecture with
demonstrations in Belfast, Maine, in 1838. Mr. Quimby regarded the mesmeric
sleep, or hypnosis as it would now be called, as an interesting phenomenon
worthy of investigation, and without knowing what his interest would lead
to he began to experiment, and in 1840 gave his first public demonstrations.
Whenever opportunity offered, he had tried to put people into the
mesmeric sleep. Sometimes he failed, but again he found a person whom he
"In the course of his trials
with subjects," says Mr. George A. Quimby in the account quoted from
above, Mr. Quimby "met with a young man named Lucius Burkmar over whom
he had the most wonderful influence; and it is not stating
it too strongly to assert that with him he made some of the most astonishing
exhibitions of mesmerism and clairvoyance that have been given in modern
"Mr. Quimby's manner of operating
with his subject was to sit opposite to him, holding both his hands in
his, and looking him intently in the eye for a short time, when the subject
would go into that state known as the mesmeric sleep which was more properly
a peculiar condition of mind and body, in which the natural senses would
or would not operate at the will of Mr. Quimby. When conducting his experiments,
all communications on the part of Mr. Quimby with Lucius were mentally
given, the subject replying as if spoken to aloud. . . .
"As the subject gained more
prominence, thoughtful men began to investigate the matter; and Mr. Quimby
was often called upon to have his subject examine the sick. We would put
Lucius into the mesmeric state, who would then examine the patient, describe
his disease, and prescribe remedies for its cure.
"After a time Mr. Quimby
became convinced that, whenever the subject examined a patient, his diagnosis
of the case would be identical with what either the patient or someone
else present believed, instead of Lucius really looking into the patient
and giving the true condition of the organs; in
fact, that he was reading the opinion in the mind of someone rather than
stating a truth acquired by himself.
"Becoming firmly satisfied
that this was the case, and having seen how one mind could influence another,
and how much there was that had always been considered as true, but was
merely some one's opinion, Mr. Quimby gave up his subject, Lucius, and
began the developing of what is now known as mental healing, or curing
disease through the mind."
That this discovery concerning
the influence of medical opinion and the influence of one mind on another
was worth pursuing to the end is clear from Mr. Quimby's account of the
way he overcame his own illness. He was still in quest of health while
experimenting with Lucius. His investigations showed him that there was
a great discrepancy between the ordinary diagnosis and the actual state
of a person suffering from disease, and it occurred to him that light could
be thrown on his own malady. In fact, he had been led to believe by the
astonishing results produced in cases where Lucius made an intuitive diagnosis
that disease itself was, as he tells us, "a deranged state of mind," the
cause of which is to be found in someone's unfortunate belief. "Disease,"
he assures us, and its power over life, its curability, "are all embraced
in our belief. Some believe in various
remedies, and others believe that the spirits of the dead prescribe. I
have no confidence in the virtue of either. I know that cures have been
made in these ways. I do not deny them. But the principle on which they
are done is the question to solve; for the disease can be cured, with or
without medicine, on but one principle."
When he had discovered what
that principle was and how it could be employed, namely, by producing changes
in the mind of the patient holding the belief in question and subject to
medical opinion, with all that this dependence implies, he saw that it
was no longer necessary to make use of his mesmeric subject, but that he
could apply the principle directly himself. First, however, he had to prove
the principle by recovering his own health.
"Now for my particular experience,"
writes Mr. Quimby in the article quoted in The True History of Mental
Science. "I had pains in the back, which, they said, were caused by
my kidneys, which were partly consumed. I was also told that I had ulcers
on my lungs. Under this belief, I was miserable enough to be of no account
in the world. This was the state I was in when I commenced to mesmerize.
0n one occasion, when I had my subject asleep, he described the pains I
felt in my back (I had never dared
to ask him to examine me, for I felt sure that my kidneys were nearly gone),
and he placed his hand on the spot where I felt the pain. He then told
me that my kidneys were in a very bad state,-- that one was half consumed,
and a piece three inches long had separated from it, and was only connected
by a slender thread. This was what I believed to be true, for it agreed
with what the doctors had told me, and with what I had suffered; for I
had not been free from pain for years. My common sense told me that no
medicine would ever cure this trouble, and therefore I must suffer till
death relieved me. But I asked him if there was any remedy. He replied,
'Yes, I can put the piece on so it will grow, and you will get well.' At
this I was completely astonished, and knew not what to think. He immediately
placed his hands upon me, and said he united the pieces so they would grow.
The next day he said they had grown together, and from that day I never
have experienced the least pain from them.
"Now what was the secret
of the cure? I had not the least doubt but that I was as he described;
and, if he had said, as I expected he would, that nothing could be done,
I should have died in a year or so. But, when he said he could cure me
in the way he proposed, I began to think; and I discovered that I had been
deceived into a belief that made me sick. The absurdity of his remedies
made me doubt the fact that my kidneys were diseased, for he said in two
days that they were as well as ever. If he saw the first condition, he
also saw the last; for in both cases he said he could see. I concluded
in the first instance that he read my thoughts and when he said he could
cure me he drew on his own mind; and his ideas were so absurd that the
disease vanished by the absurdity of the cure. This was the first stumbling-block
I found in the medical science. I soon ventured to let him examine me further,
and in every case he could describe my feelings, but would vary about the
amount of disease; and his explanation and remedies always convinced me
that I had no such disease, and that my troubles were of my own make.
"At this time I frequently
visited the sick with Lucius, by invitation of the attending physician;
and the boy examined the patient, and told facts that would astonish everybody,
and yet every one of them was believed. For instance, he told of a person
affected as I had been only worse, that his lungs looked like a honey comb,
and his liver was covered with ulcers He then prescribed some simple herb
tea, and the patient recovered; and the doctor believed the medicine cured
him. But I believed the doctor made
the disease; and his faith in the boy made a change in the mind, and the
cure followed. Instead of gaining confidence in the doctors, I was
forced to the conclusion that their science is false.
"Man is made up of truth
and belief; and, if I he is deceived into a belief that he has, or is liable to have a disease, the belief is catching,
and the effect follows it. I have given the experience of my emancipation
from this belief and from my confidence in the doctors, so that it may
open the eyes of those who stand where I was. I have risen from this belief;
and I return to warn my brethren, lest, when they are disturbed, they shall
get into this place of torment prepared by the medical faculty. Having
suffered myself, I cannot take advantage of my fellowmen by introducing
a new mode of curing disease by prescribing medicine. My theory exposes
the hypocrisy of those who undertake to cure in that way. They make
ten diseases to one cure, thus bringing a surplus of misery into
the world, and shutting out a healthy state of society. . . . When
I cure, there is one disease the less. . . . My theory teaches man
to manufacture health; and, when people go into this occupation, disease
will diminish, and those who furnish disease and death will be few and
Had Mr. Quimby been willing
to take advantage of people, he might have continued to employ his subject
in the diagnosing of disease, for it was evident that no one else understood
the significance of his discovery that with a change of mind a cure would
follow. If he had been content with his own restoration to health, he might
have used his subject instead of exerting himself to develop his own mental
powers. But, naturally honest and determined to get at the truth, Quimby
dropped mesmerism once for all. And well he might, for his experiments
had made him acquainted with himself. He saw that the human spirit possesses
other powers than those of the senses, and can influence another mind directly,
that is, without the aid of spoken language. He realized that he too possessed
clairvoyant or intuitive powers, and that it was not necessary for the
mind to be put into the mesmeric sleep in order to exercise these powers.
His subject, Lucius, had done little more than to read the mind of a patient,
discover what the person in question thought was his disease, and then
prescribe some simple remedy in which the patient was led to believe. This
was merely to make use of suggestion, as we now call it, and Quimby's discovery
had disclosed the mind's suggestibility. Mr. Quimby wanted to go further.
He was eager to know the full truth concerning disease and its cure by
the one fundamental principle implied
in all cases, whatever the appearances in favor of medicine. To have remained
where his experiments with mesmerism brought him would have been to practise
mental healing simply. Mr. Quimby's impetus was spiritual, and he did not
rest until he had acquired spiritual insight into the whole field of the
inner life. His experiments with Lucius were merely introductory to his
It is interesting to read
what Mr. George Quimby says of his father's discovery, for he was his father's
secretary for years and had opportunity to follow Quimby's work with the
sick in all its details, although he was not himself a healer.
Mr. Quimby informs us that
his father spent years developing the method and theory of spiritual healing,
fighting the battle alone, and laboring with great energy and steadiness
of purpose. "To reduce his discovery to a science which could be taught
for the benefit of suffering humanity was the all-absorbing idea of his life. To develop his 'theory,' or 'the Truth,'
as he always termed it, so that others than himself could understand and
practise it, was what he labored for. Had he been of a sordid and grasping
nature, he might have acquired unlimited wealth; but for that he seemed
to have no desire. . . .
"Each step was in opposition
to all the established ideas of the day, and was ridiculed and combated
by the whole medical faculty and the great mass of the people. In the sick
and suffering he always found staunch friends, who loved him and believed
in him, and stood by him; but they were but a handful compared with those
on the other side.
"While engaged in his mesmeric
experiments, Mr. Quimby became more and more convinced that disease was
an error of the mind, and not a real thing; and in this he was misunderstood
by others, and accused of attributing the sickness of the patient to the
imagination, which was the reverse of the fact. 'If a man feels a pain,
he knows he feels it, and there is no imagination about it,' he used to
say. But the fact that the pain might be a state of the mind, while apparent
in the body, he did believe. As one can suffer in a dream all that it is
possible in a waking state, so Mr. Quimby averred that the same condition
of mind might operate on the body in the form of disease, and still be
no more of a reality than was the dream."
In view of the fact that
some one has tried to belittle Mr. Quimby as an "ignorant mesmerist" who
never advanced beyond this crude mode of influencing people, it is significant
to read this authoritative statement in his son's account:
"As the truths of his discovery
began to develop and grow in him, just in the same proportion did he begin
to lose faith in the efficacy of mesmerism as a remedial agent in the cure
of the sick; and after a few years he discarded it all together.
"Instead of putting the patient
into a mesmeric sleep, Mr. Quimby would sit by him; and, after giving a
detailed account of what his troubles were, he would simply converse with
him, and explain the causes of his troubles, and thus change the mind of
the patient, and disabuse it of its error and establish the truth in its
place, which, if done, was the cure. . . .
"Mr. Quimby always denied
emphatically that he used any mesmeric
or mediumistic power. He was always
in his normal condition when engaged with his patient. He never went into
any trance, and was a strong disbeliever in spiritualism, as understood
by that name. He claimed, and firmly held, that his only power consisted
in his wisdom, and in his understanding the patient's case and being able
to explain away the error and establish the truth, or health,
in its place. . . .
"In the year 1859 Mr. Quimby
went to Port land, where he remained till the summer of 1865, treating
the sick by his peculiar method. It was his custom to converse at
length with many of his patients who
became interested in his method of treatment, and try to unfold to them
"Among his earlier patients
in Portland were the Misses Ware, daughters of the late Judge Ashur Ware,
of the United States Court; and they became much interested in 'the Truth,'
as he called it.* But the ideas were so new, and his reasoning was so divergent
from the popular conceptions that they found it difficult to follow him
or remember all he said; and they suggested to him the propriety of putting
into writing the body of his thoughts.
*See The Spirit
of the New Thought,"Can Disease be entirely Destroyed?" by Emma G.
"From that time he began
to write out his ideas, which practice he continued until his death, the
articles now being in the possession of the writer of this sketch. The
original copy he would give to the Misses Ware; and it would be read to
him by them, and, if he suggested any alteration, it would be made, after
which it would be copied either by the Misses Ware or the writer of this,
and then reread to him, that he might see that all was just as he intended
it. Not even the most trivial word or the construction of a sentence would
be changed without consulting him. He was given to repetition; and it was
with difficulty that he could be induced to have a repeated sentence or
phrase stricken out, as he would say, 'If that idea is a good
one, and true, it will do no harm to have it in two or three times.' "
It was during the period
of his more important practice in Portland that those patients visited
him who were later to spread his ideas in the world. The first of these
was Mr. Julius A. Dresser, who went to him as a patient when near the point
of death in June, 1860, and who became so deeply interested in Mr. Quimby's
teachings that after regaining his health he devoted the larger part of
his time to explaining the new ideas and methods of Mr. Quimby to patients.
Among these patients was Miss Annetta G. Seabury, afterwards Mrs. Julius
A. Dresser; and Mrs. Mary Baker Patterson, later Mrs. Eddy, author of Science
and Health. In 1863, Rev. W. F. Evans visited Mr. Quimby as a patient
and became at once so ardent a follower that he devoted the remainder of
his life to promulgating the spiritual philosophy implied in the method
and ideas which he gained from Quimby.
It was Mr. Quimby's intention
to retire from his practice with the
sick and write a book setting forth his teachings in permanent form. Had he done so, there would have been no controversy
over the origin of mental healing in our day,
and the later writers would not have acquired the habit of setting forth
his views as if they had been original enough to acquire them out of the
air by "revelation." But Mr. Dresser always maintained that there was a
wisdom in the delay, since the public was then unprepared for them. Mr.
Evans, who became the first author to develop these ideas, was perhaps
better fitted for his work than was Mr. Quimby, since he was well read
and able to put forth those ideas which were best calculated to win the
public at the time he wrote. Meanwhile, the manuscript books into which
Mr. Quimby's articles were copied have been preserved and some of us have
had access to them in connection with our work of giving the new ideas
to the world.
Mr. George Quimby concludes
the account of his father's life with a brief reference to Mr. Quimby's
view of life as a whole: "Mr. Quimby, although not belonging to any church
or sect, had a deeply religious nature, holding firmly to God as the first
cause, and fully believing in immortality and progression after death,
though entertaining entirely original conceptions of what death is. He
believed that Jesus's mission was to the sick, and that he performed his
cures in a scientific manner, and perfectly understood how he did them.
Mr. Quimby was a great reader of the
Bible, but put a construction upon it thoroughly in harmony with
his train of thought.
"Mr. Quimby's idea of happiness
was to benefit mankind, especially the sick and suffering; and
to that end he labored and gave his life and strength. His patients not
only found in him a doctor, but a sympathizing friend; and he took the
same interest in treating a charity patient that he did a wealthy one.
Until the writer went with him as secretary, he kept no accounts and made
no charges. He left the keeping of books entirely with his patients; and,
although he pretended to have a regular price for visits and attendance,
he took at settlement whatever the patient chose to pay him. . . .
"An hour before he breathed
his last he said to the writer: 'I am more than ever convinced of
the truth of my theory. I am perfectly willing for the change myself, but
I know you will all feel badly; but I know that I shall be right here with
you, just the same as I have always been.
I do not dread the change any more than if
I were going on a trip to Philadelphia.' His death occurred January 18,
1866, at his residence in Belfast, at the age of sixty-four years.
. . ."
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