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The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love; To Which is Added The Pleasures of Insanity Pertaining To Scortatory Love Emanuel Swedenborg

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The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love; To Which is Added The Pleasures of Insanity Pertaining To Scortatory Love

by Emanuel Swedenborg

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On Jealousy

357. The subject of jealousy is here treated of, because it also has relation to conjugial love. There is a just jealousy and an unjust; -- a just jealousy with married partners who mutually love each other, with whom it is a just and prudent zeal lest their conjugial love should be violated, and thence a just grief if it is violated; and an unjust jealousy with those who are naturally suspicious, and whose minds are sickly in consequence of viscous and bilious blood. Moreover, all jealousy is by some accounted a vice; which is particularly the case with whoremongers, who censure even a just jealousy. The term JEALOUSY (zelotypia) is derived from ZELI TYPUS (the type of zeal), and there is a type or image of just and also of unjust zeal; but we will explain these distinctions in the following series of articles: I. Zeal, considered in itself, is like the ardent fire, of love. II. The burning or flame of that love, which is zeal, is a spiritual burning or flame, arising from an infestation and assault of the love. III. The quality of a man's (homo) zeal is according to the quality of his love; thus it differs according as the love is good or evil. IV. The zeal of a good love and the zeal of an evil love are alike in externals, but altogether unlike in internals. V. The zeal of a good love in its internals contains a hidden store of love and friendship; but the zeal of an evil love in its internals contains a hidden store of hatred and revenge. VI. The zeal of conjugial love is called jealousy. VII. Jealousy is like an ardent fire against those who infest love exercised towards a married partner, and like a terrible fear for the loss of that love. VIII. There is spiritual jealousy with monogamists, and natural with polygamists. IX. Jealousy with those married partners who tenderly love each other, is a just grief grounded in sound reason lest conjugial love should be divided, and should thereby perish. X. Jealousy with married partners who do not love each other, is grounded in several causes: arising in some instances from various mental weaknesses. XI. In some instances there is not any jealousy; and this also from various causes. XII. There is a jealousy also in regard to concubines, but not such as in regard to wives. XIII. Jealousy likewise exists among beasts and birds. XIV. The jealousy of men and husbands is different from that of women and wives. We proceed to an explanation of the above articles.

358. I. ZEAL, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF, IS LIKE THE ARDENT FIRE OF LOVE, What jealousy is cannot be known, unless it be known what zeal is; for jealousy is the zeal of conjugial love. The reason why zeal is like the ardent fire of love is, because zeal is of love, which is spiritual heat, and this in its origin is like fire. In regard to the first position, it is well known that zeal is of love: nothing else is meant by being zealous, and acting from zeal, than acting from the force of love: but since when it exists, it appears not as love, but as unfriendly and hostile, offended at and fighting against him who hurts the love, therefore it may also be called the defender and protector of love; for all love is of such a nature that it bursts into indignation and anger, yea into fury, whenever it is disturbed in its delights: therefore if a love, especially the ruling love, be touched, there ensues an emotion of the mind; and if it be hurt, there ensues wrath. From these considerations it may be seen, that zeal is not the highest degree of the love, but that it is ardent love. The love of one, and the correspondent love of another, are like two confederates; but when the love of one rises up against the love of another, they become like enemies; because love is the esse of a man's life; therefore he that assaults the love, assaults the life itself; and in such case there ensues a state of wrath against the assailant, like the state of every man whose life is attempted by another. Such wrath is attendant on every love, even that which is most pacific, as is very manifest in the case of hens, geese, and birds of every kind; which, without any fear, rise against and fly at those who injure their young, or rob them of their meat. That some beasts are seized with anger, and wild beasts with fury, if their young are attacked, or their prey taken from them, is well known. The reason why love is said to burn like fire is, because love is spiritual heat, originating in the fire of the angelic sun, which is pure love. That love is heat as it were from fire, evidently appears from the heat of living bodies, which is from no other source than from their love; also from the circumstance that men grow warm and are inflamed according to the exaltation of their love. From these considerations it is manifest, that zeal is like the ardent fire of love.

359. II. THE BURNING OR FLAME OF THAT LOVE, WHICH IS ZEAL, IS A SPIRITUAL BURNING OR FLAME, ARISING FROM AN INFESTATION AND ASSAULT OF THE LOVE. That zeal is a spiritual burning or flame, is evident from what has been said above. As love in the spiritual world is heat arising from the sun of that world, therefore also love at a distance appears there as flame: it is thus that celestial love appears with the angels of heaven; and thus also infernal love appears with the spirits of hell: but it is to be observed, that that flame does not burn like the flame of the natural world. The reason why zeal arises from an assault of the love is, because love is the heat of every one's life; wherefore when the life's love is assaulted, the life's heat kindles itself, resists, and bursts forth against the assailant, and acts as an enemy by virtue of its own strength and ability, which is like flame bursting from a fire upon him who stirs it: that it is like fire, appears from the sparkling of the eyes from the face being inflamed, also from the tone of the voice and the gestures. This is the effect of love, as being the heat of life, to prevent its extinction, and with it the extinction of all cheerfulness, vivacity, and perceptibility of delight, grounded in its own love.

360. It may be expedient here to show how the love by being assaulted is inflamed and kindled into zeal, like fire into flame. Love resides in a man's will; nevertheless it is not inflamed in the will itself, but in the understanding; for in the will it is like fire, and in the understanding like flame. Love in the will knows nothing about itself, because there it is not sensible of anything relating to itself, neither does it there act from itself; but this is done in the understanding and its thought: when therefore the will is assaulted, it provokes itself to anger in the understanding, which is effected by various reasonings. These reasonings are like pieces of wood, which the fire inflames, and which thence burn: they are therefore like so much fuel, or so many combustible matters which give occasion to that spiritual flame, which is very variable.

361. We will here unfold the true reason why a man becomes inflamed in consequence of an assault of his love. The human form in its inmost principles is from creation a form of love and wisdom. In man there are all the affections of love, and thence all the perceptions of wisdom, compounded in the most perfect order, so as to make together what is unanimous, and thereby a one. Those affections and perceptions are rendered substantial; for substances are their subjects. Since therefore the human form is compounded of these, it is evident that, if the love is assaulted, this universal form also, with everything therein, is assaulted at the same instant, or together with it. And as the desire to continue in its form is implanted from creation in all living things, therefore this principle operates in every general compound by derivation from the singulars of which it is compounded, and in the singulars by derivation from the general compound: hence when the love is assaulted, it defends itself by its understanding, and the understanding (defends itself) by rational and imaginative principles, whereby it represents to itself the event; especially by such as act in unity with the love which is assaulted: and unless this was the case the above form would wholly fall to pieces, in consequence of the privation of that love. Hence then it is that love, in order to resist assaults, hardens the substance of its form, and sets them erect, as it were in crests, like so many sharp prickles, that is, crisps itself; such is the provoking of love which is called zeal: wherefore if there is no opportunity of resistance, there arise anxiety and grief, because it foresees the extinction of interior life with its delights. But on the other hand, if the love is favored and cherished, the above form unbends, softens, and dilates itself; and the substances of the form become gentle, mild, meek, and alluring.

362. III. THE QUALITY OF A MAN'S ZEAL IS ACCORDING TO THE QUALITY OF HIS LOVE; THUS IT DIFFERS ACCORDING AS THE LOVE IS GOOD OR EVIL. Since zeal is of love, it follows that its quality is such as the quality of the love is; and as there are in general two loves, the love of what is good and thence of what is true, and the love of what is evil and thence of what is false, hence in general there is a zeal in favor of what is good and thence of what is true, and in favor of what is evil and thence of what is false. But it is to be noted, that of each love there is an infinite variety. This is very manifest from the angels of heaven and the spirits of hell; both of whom in the spiritual world are the forms of their respective love; and yet there is not one angel of heaven absolutely like another as to face, speech, gait, gesture, and manner; nor any spirit of hell; yea neither can there be to eternity, howsoever they be multiplied into myriads of myriads. Hence it is evident, that there is an infinite variety of loves, because there is of their forms. The case is the same with zeal, as being of the love; the zeal of one cannot be absolutely like or the same with the zeal of another. In general there are the zeal of a good and the zeal of an evil love.

363. IV. THE ZEAL OF A GOOD LOVE AND THE ZEAL OF AN EVIL LOVE ARE ALIKE IN EXTERNALS, BUT ALTOGETHER DIFFERENT IN INTERNALS. Zeal in externals, with every one, appears like anger and wrath; for it is love enkindled and inflamed to defend itself against a violator, and to remove him. The reason why the zeal of a good love and the zeal of an evil love appear alike in externals is, because in both cases love while it is in zeal, burns; but with a good man only in externals, whereas with an evil man it burns in both externals and internals; and when internals are not regarded, the zeals appear alike in externals; but that they are altogether different in internals will be seen in the next article. That zeal appears in externals like anger and wrath, may be seen and heard from all those who speak and act from zeal; as for example, from a priest while he is preaching from zeal, the tone of whose voice is high, vehement, sharp, and harsh; his face is heated and perspires; he exerts himself, beats the pulpit, and calls forth fire from hell against those who do evil: and so in many other cases.

364. In order that a distinct idea may be formed of zeal as influencing the good, and of zeal as influencing the wicked, and of their dissimilitude, it is necessary that some idea be previously formed of men's internals and externals. For this purpose, let us take a common idea on the subject, as being adapted to general apprehension, and let it be exhibited by the case of a nut or an almond, and their kernels. With the good, the internals are like the kernels within as to their soundness and goodness, encompassed with their usual and natural husk; with the wicked, the case is altogether different, their internals are like kernels which are either not eatable from their bitterness, or rotten, or worm-eaten; whereas their externals are like the shells or husks of those kernels, either like the natural shells or husks, or shining bright like shell-fish, or speckled like the stones called irises, Such is the appearance of their externals, within which the above-mentioned internals lie concealed. The case is the same with their zeal.

365. V. THE ZEAL OF A GOOD LOVE IN ITS INTERNALS CONTAINS A HIDDEN STORE OF LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP; BUT THIS ZEAL OF AN EVIL LOVE IN ITS INTERNALS CONTAINS A HIDDEN STORE OF HATRED AND REVENGE. It was said just above, that zeal in externals appears like anger and wrath, as well with those who are in a good love, as with those who are in an evil love: but whereas the internals are different, the anger and wrath in each case differs from that of the other, and the difference is as follows: 1. The zeal of a good love is like a heavenly flame, which in one case bursts out upon another, but only defends itself, and that against a wicked person, as when he rushes into the fire and is burnt: but the zeal of an evil love is like an infernal flame, which of itself bursts forth and rushes on, and is desirous to consume another. 2. The zeal of a good love instantly burns away and is allayed when the assailant ceases to assault; but the zeal of an evil love continues and is not extinguished. 3. This is because the internal of him who is in the love of good is in itself mild, soft, friendly, and benevolent; wherefore when his external, with a view of defending itself, is fierce, harsh, and haughty, and thereby acts with rigor, still it is tempered by the good in which he is internally: it is otherwise with the wicked; with such the internal is unfriendly, without pity, harsh, breathing hatred and revenge, and feeding itself with their delights; and although it is reconciled, still those evils lie concealed as fires in wood underneath the embers; and these fires burst forth after death, if not in this world.

366. Since zeal in externals appears alike both in the good and the wicked, and since the ultimate sense of the Word consists of correspondence and appearances, therefore in the Word, it is very often said of Jehovah that he is angry and wrathful, that he revenges, punishes, casts into hell, with many other things which are appearances of zeal in externals; hence also it is that he is called zealous: whereas there is not the least of anger, wrath, and revenge in him; for he is essential mercy, grace and clemency, thus essential good, in whom it is impossible such evil passions can exist. But on this subject see more particulars in the treatise on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 545-550; and in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 494, 498, 525, 714, 806.

367. VI. THE ZEAL OF CONJUGIAL LOVE IS CALLED JEALOUSY. Zeal in favor of truly conjugial love is the chief of zeals; because that love is the chief of loves, and its delights, in favor of which also zeal operates, are the chief delights; for, as was shewn above, that love is the head of all loves. The reason of this is, because that love induces in a wife the form of love, and in a husband the form of wisdom; and from these forms united into one, nothing can proceed but what savors of wisdom and at the same time of love. As the zeal of conjugial love is the chief of zeals, therefore it is called by a new name, JEALOUSY, which is the very type of zeal.

368. VII. JEALOUSY IS LIKE AN ARDENT FIRE AGAINST THOSE WHO INFEST LOVE EXERCISED TOWARDS A MARRIED PARTNER, AND LIKE A TERRIBLE FEAR FOR THE LOSS OF THAT LOVE. The subject here treated of is jealousy of those who are in spiritual love with a married partner; in the following article we shall treat of the jealousy of those who are in natural love; and afterwards of the jealousy of those who are in love truly conjugial. With those who are in spiritual love the jealousy is various, because their love is various; for one love, whether spiritual or natural, is never altogether alike with two persons, still less with several. The reason why spiritual jealousy, or jealousy with the spiritual, is like an ardent fire raging against those who infest their conjugial love, is, because with them the first principle of love is in the internals of each party, and their love from its first principle follows its principiates, even to its ultimates, by virtue of which ultimates and at the same time of first principles, the intermediates which are of the mind and body, are kept in lovely connection. These, being spiritual, in their marriage regard union as an end, and in union spiritual rest and the pleasantness thereof: now, as they have rejected disunion from their minds, therefore their jealousy is like a fire stirred up and darting forth against those who infest them. The reason why it is also like a terrible fear is, because their spiritual love intends that they be one; if therefore there exists a chance, or happens an appearance of separation, a fear ensues as terrible as when two united parts are torn asunder. This description of jealousy was given me from heaven by those who are in spiritual conjugial love; for there are a natural, a spiritual, and a celestial conjugial love; concerning the natural and the celestial conjugial love, and their jealousy, we shall take occasion to speak in the two following articles.

369. VIII. THERE IS SPIRITUAL JEALOUSY WITH MONOGAMISTS, AND NATURAL WITH POLYGAMISTS. The reason why spiritual jealousy exists with monogamists is, because they alone can receive spiritual conjugial love, as has been abundantly shewn above. It is said that it exists; but the meaning is that it is capable of existing. That it exists only with a very few in the Christian world, where there are monogamical marriages, but that still it is capable of existing there, has also been confirmed above. That with polygamists conjugial love is natural, may be seen in the chapter on Polygamy, n. 345, 347; in like manner jealousy is natural in the same case, because this follows love. What the quality of jealousy is among polygamists, we are taught from the relations of those who have been eyewitnesses of its effects among the orientals: these effects are, that wives and concubines are guarded as prisoners in work-houses, and are withheld from and prohibited all communication with men; that into the women's apartments, or the closets of their confinement, no man is allowed to enter unless attended by a eunuch; and that the strictest watch it set to observe whether any of the women look with a lascivious eye or countenance at a man as he passes; and that if this be observed, the woman is sentenced to the whip; and in case she indulges her lasciviousness with any man, whether introduced secretly into her apartment, or from home, she is punished with death.

370. From these considerations it is plainly seen what is the quality of the fire of jealousy into which polygamical conjugial love enkindles itself, -- that it is into anger and revenge; into anger with the meek, and into revenge with the fierce. The reason of this effect is, because their love is natural, and does not partake of anything spiritual. This is a consequence of what is demonstrated in the chapter on Polygamy, -- that polygamy is lasciviousness, n. 345; and that a polygamist, so long as he remains such, is natural, and cannot become spiritual, n. 347. But the fire of jealousy is different with natural monogamists, whose love is inflamed not so much against the women as against those who do violence, becoming anger against the latter, and cold against the former: it is otherwise with polygamists, whose fire of jealousy burns also with the rage of revenge: this likewise is one of the reasons why, after the death of polygamists, their concubines and wives are for the most part set free, and are sent to seraglios not guarded, to employ themselves in the various elegant arts proper to women.

371. IX. JEALOUSY WITH THOSE MARRIED PARTNERS WHO TENDERLY LOVE EACH OTHER, IS A JUST GRIEF GROUNDED IN SOUND REASON LEST CONJUGIAL LOVE SHOULD BE DIVIDED, AND SHOULD THEREBY PERISH. All love is attended with fear and grief; fear lest it should perish, and grief in case it perishes: it is the same with conjugial love; but the fear and grief attending this love is called zeal or jealousy. The reason why this zeal, with married partners who tenderly love each other, is just and grounded in sound reason, is, because it is at the same time a fear for the loss of eternal happiness, not only of its own but also of its married partner's, and because also it is a defence against adultery. In respect to the first consideration, -- that it is a just fear for the loss of its own eternal happiness and of that of its married partner, it follows from every thing which has been heretofore adduced concerning love truly conjugial; and also from this consideration, that married partners derive from that love the blessedness of their souls, the satisfaction of their minds, the delight of their bosoms, and the pleasure of their bodies; and since these remain with them to eternity, each party has a fear for eternal happiness. That the above zeal is a just defence against adulteries, is evident: hence it is like a fire raging against violation, and defending itself against it. From these considerations it is evident, that whoever loves a married partner tenderly, is also jealous, but is just and discreet according to the man's wisdom.

372. It was said, that in conjugial love there is implanted a fear lest it should be divided, and a grief lest it should perish, and that its zeal is like a fire raging against violation. Some time ago, when meditating on this subject, I asked the zealous angels concerning the seat of jealousy? They said, that it is in the understanding of the man who receives the love of a married partner and returns it; and that its quality there is according to his wisdom: they said further, that jealousy has in it somewhat in common with honor, which also resides in conjugial love; for he that loves his wife, also honors her. In regard to zeal's residing with a man in his understanding, they assigned this reason; because conjugial love defends itself by the understanding, as good does by truth; so the wife defends those things which are common with the man, by her husband; and that on this account zeal is implanted in the men, and by them, and for their sake, in the women. To the question as to the region of the mind in which jealousy resides with the men, they replied, in their souls, because it is also a defence against adulteries; and because adulteries principally destroy conjugial love, that when there is danger of the violation of that love, the man's understanding grows hard, and becomes like a horn, with which he strikes the adulterer.

373. X. JEALOUSY WITH MARRIED PARTNERS WHO DO NOT LOVE EACH OTHER, IS GROUNDED IN SEVERAL CAUSES; ARISING IN SOME INSTANCES FROM VARIOUS MENTAL WEAKNESSES. The causes why married partners who do not mutually love each other, are yet jealous, are principally the honor resulting from power, the fear of defamation with respect both to the man himself and also to his wife, and the dread lest domestic affairs should fall into confusion. It is well known that the men have honor resulting from power, that is, that they are desirous of being respected in consequence thereof; for so long as they have this honor, they are as it were of an elevated mind, and not dejected when in the company of men and women: to this honor also is attached the name of bravery; wherefore military officers have it more than others. That the fear of defamation, with respect both to the man himself and also to his wife, is a cause of jealousy that agrees with the foregoing: to which may be added, that living with a harlot, and debauched practices in a house, are accounted infamous. The reason why some are jealous through a dread lest their domestic affairs should fall into confusion, is because, so far as this is the case, the husband is made light of, and mutual services and aids are withdrawn; but with some in process of time this jealousy ceases and is annihilated, and with some it is changed into the mere semblance of love.

374. That jealousy in certain cases arises from various mental weaknesses, is not unknown in the world; for there are jealous persons, who are continually thinking that their wives are unfaithful, and believe them to be harlots, merely because they hear or see them talk in a friendly manner with or about men. There are several vitiated affections of the mind which induce this weakness; the principal of which is a suspicious fancy, which if it be long cherished, introduces the mind into societies of similar spirits, from whence it cannot without difficulty be rescued; it also confirms itself in the body, by rendering the serum, and consequently the blood, viscous, tenacious, thick, slow, and acrid, a defect of strength also increases it; for the consequence of such defect is, that the mind cannot be elevated from its suspicious fancies; for the presence of strength elevates, and its absence depresses, the latter causing the mind to sink, give way, and become feeble; in which case it immerses itself more and more in the above fancy, till it grows delirious, and thence takes delight in quarrelling, and, so far as is allowable, in abuse.

375. There are also several countries, which more than others labor under this weakness of jealousy: in these the wives are imprisoned, are tyrannically shut out from conversation with men, are prevented from even looking at them through the windows, by blinds drawn down, and are terrified by threats of death if the cherished suspicion shall appear well grounded; not to mention other hardships which the wives in those countries suffer from their jealous husbands. There are two causes of this jealousy; one is, an imprisonment and suffocation of the thoughts in the spiritual things of the church; the other is, an inward desire of revenge. As to the first cause, -- the imprisonment and suffocation of the thoughts in the spiritual things of the church, its operation and effect may be concluded from what has been proved above, -- that everyone has conjugial love according to the state of the church with him, and as the church is from the Lord, that that love is solely from the Lord, n. 130, 131; when therefore, instead of the Lord, living and deceased men are approached and invoked, it follows, that the state of the church is such that conjugial love cannot act in unity with it; and the less so while the mind is terrified into that worship by the threats of a dreadful prison: hence it comes to pass, that the thoughts, together with the expressions of them in conversation, are violently seized and suffocated; and when they are suffocated, there is an influx of such things as are either contrary to the church, or imaginary in favor of it; the consequence of which is, heat in favor of harlots and cold towards a married partner; from which two principles prevailing together in one subject, such an unconquerable fire of jealousy flows forth. As to the second cause, -- the inward desire of revenge, this altogether checks the influx of conjugial love, and swallows it up, and changes the delight thereof, which is celestial, into the delight of revenge, which is infernal; and the proximate determination of this latter is to the wife. There is also an appearance, that the unhealthiness of the atmosphere, which in those regions is impregnated with the poisonous exhalations of the surrounding country, is an additional cause.

376. XI. IN SOME INSTANCES THERE IS NOT ANY JEALOUSY; AND THIS ALSO FROM VARIOUS CAUSES. There are several causes of there being no jealousy, and of its ceasing. The absence of jealousy is principally with those who make no more account of conjugial than of adulterous love, and at the same time are so void of honorable feeling as to slight the reputation of a name: they are not unlike married pimps. There is no jealousy likewise with those who have rejected it from a confirmed persuasion that it infests the mind, and that it is useless to watch a wife, and that to do so serves only to incite her, and that therefore it is better to shut the eyes, and not even to look through the key-hole, lest any thing should be discovered. Some have rejected jealousy on account of the reproach attached to the name, and under the idea that any one who is a real man, is afraid of nothing: some have been driven to reject it lest their domestic affairs should suffer, and also lest they should incur public censure in case the wife was convicted of the disorderly passion of which she is accused. Moreover jealousy passes off into no jealousy with those who grant license to their wives, either from a want of ability, or with a view to the procreation of children for the sake of inheritance, also in some cases with a view to gain, and so forth. There are also disorderly marriages, in which, by mutual consent, the licence of unlimited amour is allowed to each party, and yet they are civil and complaisant to each other when they meet.

377. XII. THERE IS A JEALOUSY ALSO IN REGARD TO CONCUBINES, BUT NOT SUCH AS IN REGARD TO WIVES. Jealousy in regard to wives originates in a man's inmost principles; but jealousy in regard to concubines originates in external principles; they therefore differ in kind. The reason why jealousy in regard to wives originates in inmost principles is, because conjugial love resides in them: the reason why it resides there is, because marriage from the eternity of its compact established by covenant, and also from an equality of right, the right of each party being transferred to the other, unites souls, and lays a superior obligation on minds: this obligation and that union, once impressed, remain inseparable, whatever be the quality of the love afterwards, whether it be warm or cold. Hence it is that an invitation to love coming from a wife chills the whole man from the inmost principles to the outermost; whereas an invitation to love coining from a concubine has not the same effect upon the object of her love. To jealousy in regard to a wife is added the earnest desire of reputation with a view to honor; and there is no such addition to jealousy in regard to a concubine. Nevertheless both kinds of jealousy vary according to the seat of the love received by the wife and by the concubine; and at the same time according to the state of the judgment of the man receiving it.

378. XIII. JEALOUSY LIKEWISE EXISTS AMONG BEASTS AND BIRDS. That it exists among wild beasts, as lions, tigers, bears, and several others, while they have whelps, is well known; and also among bulls, although they have not calves: it is most conspicuous among dung-hill cocks, who in favor of their hens fight with their rivals even to death: the reason why the latter have such jealousy is, because they are vain-glorious lovers, and the glory of that love cannot endure an equal; that they are vain-glorious lovers, above every genus and species of birds, is manifest from their gestures, nods, gait, and tone of voice. That the glory of honor with men, whether lovers or not, excites, increases, and sharpens jealousy, has been confirmed above.

379. XIV. THE JEALOUSY OF MEN AND HUSBANDS IS DIFFERENT FROM THAT OF WOMEN AND WIVES. The differences cannot however be distinctly pointed out, since the jealousy of married partners who love each other spiritually, differs from that of married partners who love each other merely naturally, and differs again with those who disagree in minds, and also with those who have subjected their consorts to the yoke of obedience. The jealousies of men and of women considered in themselves are different, because from different origins: the origin of the jealousies of men is in the understanding, whereas of women it is in the will applied to the understanding of the husband: the jealousy of a man therefore, is like a flame of wrath and anger; whereas that of a woman is like a fire variously restrained, by fear, by regard to the husband, by respect to her own love, and by her prudence in not revealing this love to her husband by jealousy: they differ also because wives are loves, and men recipients thereof; and wives are unwilling to squander their love upon the men, but the case is not so with the recipients towards the wives. With the spiritual, however, it is otherwise; with these the jealousy of the man is transferred into the wife, as the love of the wife is transferred into the husband; therefore with each party it appears like itself against the attempts of a violator; but the jealousy of the wife is inspired into the husband against the attempts of the violating harlot, which is like grief weeping, and moving the conscience.


380. To the above I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS. I was once in much amazement at the great multitude of men who ascribe creation, and consequently whatever is under the sun and above it, to nature; expressing the real sentiments of their hearts as to the visible things of the world, by this question, "What are these but the works of nature?" And when they are asked why they ascribe them to nature and not to God, when nevertheless they occasionally join in the general confession, that God has created nature, and therefore they might as well ascribe creation to God as to nature, they return for answer, with an internal tone of voice, which is scarcely audible, "What is God but nature?" From this persuasion concerning nature as the creator of the universe, and from this folly which has to them the semblance of wisdom, all such persons appear so full of their own importance, that they regard all those who acknowledge the creation of the universe to be from God, as so many ants which creep along the ground and tread in a beaten path, and in some cases as butterflies which fly in the air; ridiculing their opinions as dreams because they see what they do not see, and deciding all by the question, "Who has seen God, and who has not seen nature?" While I was thus amazed at the great multitude of such persons, there stood near me an angel, who asked me, "What is the subject of your meditation?" I replied, "It is concerning the great multitude of such as believe that nature created the universe." The angel then said to me, "All hell consists of such persons, who are there called satans and devils; satans, if they have confirmed themselves in favor of nature to the denial of God, and devils, if they have lived wickedly, and thereby rejected all acknowledgement of God from their hearts; but I will lead you to the gymnasia, which are in the south-west, where such persons dwell, having not yet departed to their infernal abodes." He took me by the hand and led me there. I saw some small houses, in which were apartments for the studious, and in the midst of them one which served as a principal hall to the rest. It was constructed of a pitchy kind of stone, covered with a sort of glazed plates, that seemed to sparkle with gold and silver, like the stones called Glades Mariæ; and here and there were interspersed shells which glittered in like manner. We approached and knocked at the door, which was presently opened by one who bade us welcome. He then went to the table, and fetched four books, and said, "These books are the wisdom which is at this day the admiration of many kingdoms: this book or wisdom is the admiration of many in France, this of many in Germany, this of some in Holland, and this of some in England:" He further said, "If you wish to see it, I will cause these four books to shine brightly before your eyes:" he then poured forth and spread around them the glory of his own reputation, and the books presently shone as with light; but this light instantly vanished from our sight. We then asked him what he was now writing? He replied, that he was now about to bring forth from his treasures, and publish to the world, things of inmost wisdom, which would be comprised under these general heads: I. Whether nature be derived from life, or life from nature. II. Whether the centre be derived from the expanse, or the expanse from the centre. III. On the centre and the expanse of nature and of life. Having said this, he reclined on a couch at the table; but we walked about in his spacious study. He had a candle on the table, because the light of the sun never shone in that room, but only the nocturnal light of the moon; and what surprised me, the candle seemed to be carried all round the room, and to illuminate it; but, for want of being snuffed, it gave but little light. While he was writing, we saw images in various forms flying from the table towards the walls, which in that nocturnal moon-light appeared like beautiful Indian birds; but on opening the door, lo! in the light of the sun they appeared like birds of the evening, with wings like network; for they were semblances of truth made fallacies by being confirmed, which he had ingeniously connected together into series. After attending some time to this sight, we approached the table, and asked him what he was then writing? He replied, "On the first general head, WHETHER NATURE BE DERIVED FROM LIFE, OR LIFE FROM NATURE;" and on this question he said, that he could confirm either side, and cause it to be true; but as something lay concealed within which excited his fears, therefore he durst only confirm this side, that nature is of life, that is, from life, but not that life is of nature, that is, from it. We then civilly requested him to tell us, what lay concealed within, which excited his fears? He replied, he was afraid lest he should be called a naturalist, and so an atheist, by the clergy, and a man of unsound reason by the laity; as they both either believe from a blind credulity, or see from the sight of those who confirm that credulity. But just then, being impelled by a kind of indignant zeal for the truth, we addressed him in saying, "Friend, you are much deceived; your wisdom, which is only an ingenious talent for writing, has seduced you, and the glory of reputation has led you to confirm what you do not believe. Do you know that the human mind is capable of being elevated above sensual things, which are derived into the thoughts from the bodily senses, and that when it is so elevated, it sees the things that are of life above, and those that are of nature beneath? What is life but love and wisdom? and what is nature but their recipient, whereby they may produce their effects or uses? Can these possibly be one in any other sense than as principal and instrumental are one? Can light be one with the eye, or sound with the ear? Whence are the senses of these organs but from life, and their forms but from nature? What is the human body but an organ of life? Are not all things therein organically formed to produce the things which the love wills and the understanding thinks? Are not the organs of the body from nature, and love and thought from life? And are not those things entirely distinct from each other? Raise the penetration of your ingenuity a little, and you will see that it is the property of life to be affected and to think, and that to be affected is from love, and to think is from wisdom, and each is from life; for, as we have said, love and wisdom are life: if you elevate your faculty of understanding a little higher, you will see that no love and wisdom exists, unless its origin be somewhere or other, and that its origin is wisdom itself, and thence life itself, and these are God from whom is nature." Afterwards we conversed with him about his second question, WHETHER THE CENTRE BE OF THE EXPANSE, OR THE EXPANSE OF THE CENTRE; and asked him why he discussed this question? He replied, "With a view to conclude concerning the centre and the expanse of nature and of life, thus concerning the origin of each." And when we asked him what were his sentiments on the subject, he answered, as in the former case, that he could confirm either side, but for fear of suffering in his reputation, he would confirm that the expanse is of the centre, that is, from the centre; although I know, said he, that something existed before the sun, and this in the universe throughout, and that these things flowed together of themselves into order, thus into centres. But here again we addressed him from the overflowing of an indignant zeal, and said, "Friend, you are insane." On hearing these words, he drew his couch aside from the table, and looked timidly at us, and then listened to our conversation, but with a smile upon his countenance, while we thus proceeded: "What is a surer proof of insanity, than to say that the centre is from the expanse? By your centre we understand the sun, and by your expanse the universe; and thus, according to you, the universe existed without the sun: but does not the sun make nature, and all its properties, which depend solely on the heat and light proceeding from the sun by the atmospheres? Where were those things previous to the sun's existence? But whence they originated we will shew presently. Are not the atmospheres and all things which exist on the earth, as surfaces, and the sun their centre? What are they all without the sun; or how could they subsist a single moment in the sun's absence? Consequently what were they all before the sun, or how could they subsist? Is not subsistence perpetual existence? Since therefore all the parts of nature derive their subsistence from the sun, they must of consequence derive also their existence from the same origin: every one sees and is convinced of this truth by the testimony of his own eyes. Does not that which is posterior subsist from what is prior, as it exists from what is prior? Supposing the surface to be the prior and the centre the posterior, would not the prior in such case subsist from the posterior, which yet is contrary to the laws of order? How can posterior things produce prior, or exterior things produce interior, or grosser things produce purer? consequently, how can surfaces, which constitute the expanse, produce centres? Who does not see that this is contrary to the laws of nature? We have adduced these arguments from a rational analysis, to prove that the expanse exists from the centre, and not the centre from the expanse; nevertheless every one who sees aright, sees it to be so without the help of such arguments. You have asserted, that the expanse flowed together of itself into a centre; did it thus flow by chance into so wonderful and stupendous an order, where one thing exists for the sake of another, and everything for the sake of man, and with a view to his eternal life? Is it possible that nature from any principle of love, by any principle of wisdom, should provide such things? And can nature make angels of men, and heaven of angels? Ponder and consider these things: and your idea of nature existing from nature will fall to the ground." Afterwards we questioned him as to his former and present sentiments concerning his third inquiry, relating to the CENTRE AND EXPANSE OF NATURE AND OF LIKE; whether he was of opinion that the centre and expanse of life are the same with the centre and expanse of nature? He replied, that he was in doubt about it, and that he formerly thought that the interior activity of nature is life; and that love and wisdom, which essentially constitute the life of man, are thence derived; and that the sun's fire, by the instrumentality of heat and light, through the mediums of the atmospheres, produce those principles; but that now, from what he had heard concerning the eternal life of men, he began to waver in his sentiments, and that in consequence of such wavering, his mind was sometimes carried upwards, sometimes downwards; and that when it was carried upwards, he acknowledged a centre of which he had before no idea; but when downwards, he saw a centre which he believed to be the only one that existed; and that life is from the centre which before was unknown to him; and nature is from the centre which he before believed to be the only one existing; and that each centre has an expanse around it. To this we said, Well, if he would only respect the centre and expanse of nature from the centre and expanse of life, and not contrariwise; and we informed him, that above the angelic heaven there is a sun which is pure love, in appearance very like the sun of the world; and that from the heat which proceeds from that sun, angels and men derive will and love, and from its light they derive understanding and wisdom; and that the things which are of life, are called spiritual and that those which proceed from the sun of the world, are what contain life, and are called natural; also that the expanse of the centre of life is called the SPIRITUAL WORLD, which subsists from its sun, and that the expanse of nature is called the NATURAL WORLD, which subsists from its sun. Now, since of love and wisdom there cannot be predicated spaces and times, but instead thereof states, it follows, that the expanse around the sun of the angelic heaven is not extended, but still is in the extense of the natural sun, and present with all living subjects therein according to their receptions, which are according to forms. But he then asked, "Whence comes the fire of the sun of the world, or of nature?" We replied, that it is derived from the sun of the angelic heaven, which is not fire, but divine love proximately proceeding from God, who is love itself. As he was surprised at this, we thus proved it: "Love in its essence is spiritual fire; hence fire in the Word, in its spiritual sense, signifies love: it is on this account that priests, when officiating in the temple, pray that heavenly fire may fill their hearts, by which they mean heavenly love: the fire of the altar and of the candlestick in the tabernacle amongst the Israelites, represented divine love: the heat of the blood, or the vital heat of men and animals in general is from no other source than love, which constitutes their life: hence it is that a man is enkindled, grows warm, and becomes on fire, while his love is exalted into zeal, anger, and wrath; wherefore from the circumstance, that spiritual heat, which is love, produces natural heat with men, even to the kindling and inflaming of their faces and limbs, it may appear, that the fire of the natural sun has existed from no other source than the fire of the spiritual sun, which is divine love. Now, since the expanse originates from the centre, and not the centre from the expanse, as we said above, and the centre of life, which is the sun of the angelic heaven, is divine love proximately proceeding from God, who is in the midst of that sun; and since the expanse of that centre, which is called the spiritual world, is hence derived; and since from that sun existed the sun of the world, and from the latter its expanse, which is called the natural world; it is evident, that the universe was created by one God." With these words we took our leave, and he attended us out of the court of his study, and conversed with us respecting heaven and hell, and the divine government, from a new acuteness of genius.

381. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking around into the world of spirits, I saw at a distance a palace surrounded and as it were besieged by a crowd; I also saw many running towards it. Wondering what this could mean, I speedily left the house, and asked one of those who were running, what was the matter at the palace? He replied, that three new comers from the world had been taken up into heaven, and had there seen magnificent things, also maidens and wives of astonishing beauty; and that being let down from heaven they had entered into that palace, and were relating what they had seen; especially that they had beheld such beauties as their eyes had never before seen, or can see, unless illustrated by the light of heavenly aura. Respecting themselves they said, that in the world they had been orators, from the kingdom of France, and had applied themselves to the study of eloquence, and that now they were seized with a desire of making an oration on the origin of beauty. When this was made known in the neighbourhood, the multitude flocked together to hear them. Upon receiving this information, I hastened also myself, and entered the palace, and saw the three men standing in the midst, dressed in long robes of a sapphire color, which, having threads of gold in their texture at every change of posture shone as if they had been golden. They stood ready to speak behind a kind of stage; and presently one of them rose on a step behind the stage, and delivered his sentiments concerning the origin of the beauty of the female sex, in the following words.

382. "What is the origin of beauty but love, which, when it flows into the eyes of youths, and sets them on becomes beauty? therefore love and beauty are the same thing; for love, from an inmost principle, tinges the face of a marriageable maiden with a kind of flame, from the transparence of which is derived the dawn and bloom of her life. Who does not know that the flame emits rays into her eyes, and spreads from these as centres into the countenance, and also descends into the breast, and sets the heart on fire, and thereby affects (a youth), just as a fire with its heat and light affects a person standing near it? That heat is love, and that light is the beauty of love. The whole world is agreed, and firm in the opinion, that every one is lovely and beautiful according to his love: nevertheless the love of the male sex differs from that of the female. Male love is the love of growing wise, and female love is that of loving the love of growing wise in the male; so far therefore as a youth is the love of growing wise, so far he is lovely and beautiful to a maiden; and so far as a maiden is the love of a youth's wisdom, so far she is lovely and beautiful to a youth; wherefore as love meets and kisses the love of another, so also do beauties. I conclude therefore, that love forms beauty into a resemblance of itself."

383. After him arose a second, with a view of discovering, in a neat and elegant speech, the origin of beauty. He expressed himself thus: "I have heard that love is the origin of beauty; but I cannot agree with this opinion. What human being knows what love is? Who has ever contemplated it with any idea of thought? Who has ever seen it with the eye? Let such a one tell me where it is to be found. But I assert that wisdom is the origin of beauty; in women a wisdom which lies concealed and stored up in the inmost principles of the mind, in men a wisdom which manifests itself, and is apparent. Whence is a man (homo) a man but from wisdom? Were it not so, a man would be a statue or a picture. What does a maiden attend to in a youth, but the quality of his wisdom; and what does a youth attend to in a maiden, but the quality of her affection of his wisdom? By wisdom I mean genuine morality; because this is the wisdom of life. Hence it is, that when wisdom which lies concealed, approaches and embraces wisdom which is manifest, as is the case interiorly in the spirit of each, they mutually kiss and unite, and this is called love; and in such case each of the parties appears beautiful to the other. In a word, wisdom is like the light or brightness of fire, which impresses itself on the eyes, and thereby forms beauty."

384. After him the third arose, and spoke to this effect: "It is neither love alone nor wisdom alone, which is the origin of beauty; but it is the union of love and wisdom; the union of love with wisdom in a youth, and the union of wisdom with its love in a maiden: for a maiden does not love wisdom in herself but in a youth, and hence sees him as beauty, and when a youth sees this in a maiden, he then sees her as beauty; therefore love by wisdom forms beauty, and wisdom grounded in love receives it. That this is the case, appears manifestly in Heaven. I have there seen maidens and wives, and have attentively considered their beauties, and have observed, that beauty in maidens differs from beauty in wives; in maidens being only the brightness, but in wives the splendor of beauty. The difference appeared like that of a diamond sparkling from light, and of a ruby shining from fire together with light. What is beauty but the delight of the sight? and in what does this delight originate but in the sport of love and wisdom? This sport gives brilliancy to the sight, and this brilliancy vibrates from eye to eye, and presents an exhibition of beauty. What constitutes beauty of countenance, but red and white, and the lovely mixture thereof with each other? and is not the red derived from love, and the white from wisdom? love being red from its fire, and wisdom, white from its light. Both these I have clearly seen in the faces of two married partners in heaven; the redness of white in the wife, and the whiteness of red in the husband; and I observed that they shone in consequence of mutually looking at each other." When the third had thus concluded, the assembly applauded and cried out, "He has gained the victory." Then on a sudden, a flaming light, which is the light of conjugial love, filled the house with its splendor, and the hearts of the company with satisfaction. New Thought cards support us to live better

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