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William Atkinson's

Art Of Logical Thinking

Book page numbers, along with the number to the left of the .htm extension match the page numbers of the original books to ensure easy use in citations for research papers and books


1 - Reasoning - 2 - Process of Reasoning - 3 - The Concept - 4 - The Use of Concepts - 5 - Concepts and Images - 6 - Terms - 7 - Meaning of Terms - 8 - Judgments - 9 - Propositions - 10 - Immediate Reasoning - 11 - Inductive Reasoning - 12 - Reasoning by Induction - 13 - Theory and Hypotheses - 14 - Making and Testing Hypotheses - 15 - Deductive Reasoning - 16 - The Syllogism - 17 - Varieties of Syllogisms - 18 - Reasoning by Analogy - 19 - Fallacies -


Chapter 19 - Fallacies - p. 186

A Fallacy is: "An unsound argument or mode of arguing, which, while appearing to be decisive of a question, is in reality not so; an argument or proposition apparently sound, but really fallacious; a fallacious statement or proposition, in which the error is not apparent, and which is therefore likely to mislead or deceive; sophistry."

In Deductive Reasoning, we meet with two classes of Fallacies; namely, (1) Fallacious Premise; and (2) Fallacious Conclusion. We shall now consider each of these in turn.

Fallacious Premise is in effect an unwarranted assumption of premises. One of the most common forms of this kind of Fallacy is known as "Begging the Question," the principle of which is the assumption of a fundamental premise which is not conceded; the unwarrantable assumption of that which is to be proved; or the assumption of that by which it is to be proved, without proving it. Its most

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