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William Atkinson's

Art Of Logical Thinking

Book page numbers, along with the number to the left of the .htm extension match the page numbers of the original books to ensure easy use in citations for research papers and books


1 - Reasoning - 2 - Process of Reasoning - 3 - The Concept - 4 - The Use of Concepts - 5 - Concepts and Images - 6 - Terms - 7 - Meaning of Terms - 8 - Judgments - 9 - Propositions - 10 - Immediate Reasoning - 11 - Inductive Reasoning - 12 - Reasoning by Induction - 13 - Theory and Hypotheses - 14 - Making and Testing Hypotheses - 15 - Deductive Reasoning - 16 - The Syllogism - 17 - Varieties of Syllogisms - 18 - Reasoning by Analogy - 19 - Fallacies -


Chapter 12 - Reasoning by Induction - p. 116

The term "Induction," in its logical usage, is defined as follows: "(a) The process of investigating and collecting facts; and (b) the deducing of an inference from these facts; also (c) sometimes loosely used in the sense of an inference from observed facts." Mill says: "Induction, then, is that operation of the mind, by which we infer that what we know to be true in a particular case or cases, will be true in all cases which resemble the former in certain assignable respects. In other words, Induction is the process by which we conclude that what is true of certain individuals of a class, is true of the whole class, or that what is true at certain times will be true in similar circumstances at all times."

The Basis of Induction is the axiom that: "What is true of the many is true of the whole." Esser, a well known authority, states this axiom in rather more complicated form, as follows: "That which belongs or does not

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