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William Atkinson's

Art Of Logical Thinking

Book page numbers, along with the number to the left of the .htm extension match the page numbers of the original books to ensure easy use in citations for research papers and books

1 - Reasoning - 2 - Process of Reasoning - 3 - The Concept - 4 - The Use of Concepts - 5 - Concepts and Images - 6 - Terms - 7 - Meaning of Terms - 8 - Judgments - 9 - Propositions - 10 - Immediate Reasoning - 11 - Inductive Reasoning - 12 - Reasoning by Induction - 13 - Theory and Hypotheses - 14 - Making and Testing Hypotheses - 15 - Deductive Reasoning - 16 - The Syllogism - 17 - Varieties of Syllogisms - 18 - Reasoning by Analogy - 19 - Fallacies -

Chapter 2 - The Process of Reasoning - p. 17

The processes of Reasoning may be said to comprise four general stages or steps, as follows

I. Abstraction, by which is meant the process of drawing of and setting aside from an object, person or thing, a quality or attribute, and making of it a distinct object of thought. For instance, if I perceive in a lion the quality of strength, and am able to think of this quality abstractly and independently of the animal if the term strength has an actual mental meaning to me, independent of the lion—then I have abstracted that quality; the thinking thereof is an act of abstraction; and the thought-idea itself is an, abstract idea. Some writers hold that these abstract ideas are realities, and "not mere figments of fancy." As Brooks says: " The rose dies, but my idea of its color and fragrance remains." Other authorities regard Abstraction as but an act of attention concentrated upon but the particular

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